Tcl Bibliography

The following information is quite old - it comes from a FAQ turned over to another community member, was updated once or twice, and then never again. URLs may frequently be stale. However, journal references should be accurate and provide a historical basis for Tcl publication. If you are someone who wants to contribute to the Tcl community, feel free to update the following as you find newer information.

Information about inaccuracies in the bibliography is also welcome.


 A. The Seminal Papers
 B. The Expect distribution
 C. Miscellaneous other online materials
 D. Published articles, books, and similarly available resources

A. The Seminal Papers

John Ousterhout, the author of Tcl and Tk, presented these two papers at USENIX conferences. They are somewhat out of date as far as the technical details go, but they remain interesting and useful.

1. Ousterhout, J.K., (1990) ``TCL: An Embeddable Command Language'', in the Proceedings of the 1990 Winter USENIX Conference, pp 133-146.

2.Ousterhout, J.K., (1991) ``An X11 Toolkit Based on the TCL Language'', in the Proceedings of the 1991 Winter USENIX Conference, pp 105-115.

(The last of these files is the contents of Figure 10 of the Tk paper)

If you have trouble retrieving the papers via FTP or printing them, send [email protected] your U.S. Mail address and he will mail you paper copies.

B. The Expect distribution

With the Expect distribution, there are several Postscript documents available which have been published.

1. "Curing Those Uncontrollable Fits of Interaction", Don Libes, Proceedings of the Summer 1990 USENIX Conference, Anaheim, CA, June 11-15, 1990.

This paper is discussion of implementation, philosophy, and design. Its address is:

2. "Using expect to Automate System Administration Tasks", Don Libes, Proceedings of the 1990 USENIX Large Systems Administration Conference (LISA) IV, Colorado Springs, CO, October 17-19, 1990.

This paper is discussion and examples specifically aimed at system administrators. The address of this paper is:

3. "expect: Scripts for Controlling Interactive Programs", Don Libes, Computing Systems, Vol. 4, No. 2, University of California Press Journals, 1991.

A comprehensive paper of example scripts. This paper's address is:

4. "Regression Testing and Conformance Testing Interactive Programs", Don Libes, Proceedings of the Summer 1992 USENIX Conference, San Antonio, CA, June 8-12, 1992.

This paper discusses the application of expect to the verification of software. This paper's address is:

5. See above for "A Debugger for Tcl Applications" reference.

6. "Kibitz - Connecting Multiple Interactive Programs Together", Don Libes, Software - Practice & Experience, John Wiley & Sons, West Susses, England, Vol. 23, No. 5, May 1993.

This paper is a discussion of using Tcl and Expect to connect multiple interactive programs together. This paper's address is:

7. "X Wrappers for Non-Graphic Interactive Programs", Don Libes, draft for Xhibition 94.

This paper discusses encapsulating standard command interfaces into a graphical user interface. This paper's address is:

C. Miscellaneous other online materials

1. The ftp address for a Quick Reference TeX guide, updated recently to Tcl 7.3 is:

Many thanks to "Jeff Tranter" <[email protected]> for contributing it.

2. PostScript versions of some (out-of-date) man pages were provided by "Adrian Ho" <[email protected]>. The addresses for these are: , ,

3. The draft of Ousterhout's book (see entry D.17) is available online.

4. A series of PostScript slides used in a tutorial on Tcl and Tk at the 1993 X Conference are available as:

5. A set of Postscript files collected for the Tcl 93 workshop proceedings is available as:

This file contains the following papers:

a. "A Debugger for Tcl Applications", by Don Libes, National Institute of Standards and Technology.

Describes a debugger for Tcl applications.

b. "A Compiler for the Tcl Language", by Adam Sah and Jon Blow, University of California, Berkeley, CA.

A discussion of the design issues for providing a compiler for the Tcl language.

c. "incr tcl - Object-Oriented Programming in TCL", by Michael J. McLennan, AT&T Bell Laboratories, Allentown, PA.

Describes a set of extensions for organizing Tcl procedures and data into packages.

d. "CASTE: A class system for Tcl", by Michael S. Braverman, University of California, Berkeley, CA.

Introduces a structured object class extension for Tcl.

e. "Interfacing an Object-Oriented Database System from Tcl", by Dietmar Theobald, Forschungszentrum Informatik, Karlsruhe Germany

A generic interface extension to an object-oriented database.

f. "Tcl Distributed Programming", by Brian C. Smith, Lawrence A. Rowe, and Stephen C. Yen, University of California, Berkeley, CA.

Introduces the Tcl-DP extension to Tcl.

g. "Cooperating Applications through Tcl/Tk and DCE", by David Richardson, University of Michigan

Description of integrating Tcl/Tk into Open Software Foundation's Distributed Computing Environment.

h. "NeoSoft Whiteboard - A framework for Internet-based Collaboration", by Karl Lehenbauer, Ellyn Mustard, NeoSoft, Inc., Brad Morrison, Paranet, Inc.

Describes a generic groupware framework using Tcl/Tk.

i. "Tcl/Tk as a Basis for Groupware", by Mark Roseman, University of Calgary, Alberta Canada

Why Tcl/Tk provides a good environment for groupware developers.

j. "Tcl and Tk Use in the Artifact Based Collaboration System", by John Menges and Mark Parris, University of North Carolina.

Describes a collaboration system being built at UNC whose user interfaces are based on Tk.

k. "Ak: An Audio Toolkit for Tcl/Tk", by Andrew C. Payne, formerly of Digital Equipment Corporation, Cambridge Research Lab, presently of OpenMarket.

Describes Ak, an audio extension for Tcl build on the AudioFile System.

l. "A Tcl/Tk Continuous Media Player", by Brian C. Smith, Lawrence A. Rowe, and Stephen C. Yen, University of California, Berkeley, CA.

A Tk application that supports playback of live digital audio and video on a Unix workstation.

m. "Tcl in a High-Throughput Biological Lab", by Scott P. Hunicke-Smith & Dan Mosedale, Stanford Yeast Genome Project

Description of use of Tcl based control of a laboratory robot.

n. "Autonomous Knowledge Agents - How Agents use the Tool Command Language", by Raymond W. Johnson, Lockheed Missiles and Space Corporation, Palo Alto, CA.

Descriptions of traits of a software agent and how one of these traits led to the use of Tcl.

o. "Implementing a Visualization of an Industrial Productions Cell Using Tcl/Tk", by Arthur Brauer, Claus Lewerentz, and Thomas Lindner, Forschungszentrum Informatik, Karlsruhe Germany.

Discussion of a complex animated simulation written using Tk/Tcl.

p. "Writing Object-oriented Tcl-based Systems using Objectify", by Wayne A. Christopher, University of California, Berkeley, CA.

Describes Objectify, a facility for integrating C++ classes into Tcl-based systems.

q. "Use of Tcl/Tk in DTS, an Interactive Optimization and Scheduling System", by Benjamin Fried, Aleks Gollu and Othar Hansson, Heuristicrats Research Inc.

An abstract of the work being done with Tcl in a NASA scheduling system.

r. "Embedding a Scheme Interpreter in the Tk Toolkit", by Erick Gallesio, Valbonne, France.

Describes STk, which is a Tk package with Scheme replacing Tcl.

s. "The Next, Best Thing in File Browsers", by Michael A. Harrison, Thomas A. Phelps, University of California, Berkeley, CA.

Describes NBT, an extended NeXTSTEP file selection box.

t. "Tcl/Tk - An Integration Vehicle for the Microwave/Millimeter-Wave Pilot Sites (MMPS)", by Kevin B. Kenny, Brion D. Sarachan, Robert N. Sum Jr., and Wayne H. Uejio, GE Corporate R&D.

Describes developing wrappes for commercial vendor applications like FrameMaker (R) and Xess (R).

u. "Generalising a File Manager into an Address Book and Other Things", by J. D. Newmarch, University of Canberra, Australia

Describing a redesign of an X file manager to allow the best features of a command line environment and a graphical interface.

v. "Noosa: Execution Monitoring using Tcl and Tk", by Anthony M. Sloane, University of Colorado.

An overview of an event-based execution monitoring system.

w. "An Interactive Compiler Development System", by Gary S. Tyson, Robert J. Shaw and Matthew K. Farrens, University of California, Davis, CA.

Describes an interactive graphical optimizer.

6. A second set of Postscript files consisting primarily of overhead slides is available as:

This file (tcl93-proceedings2) contains the following slides:

a. "Cooperating Applications through Tcl/Tk and DCE", by David Richardson, University of Michigan.

b. "Ak An Audio Toolkit for Tcl & Tk", by Andrew Payne, formerly of Digital Equipment Corporation, Cambridge Research Laboratory, currently of OpenMarket.

c. "Tcl Distributed Programming", by Brian C. Smith, Lawrence A. Rowe, Stephen C. Yen, University of California at Berkeley.

d. "Supervisory Control Language - Applying Tcl to the Realtime Arena" presentation by Computerized Processes Unlimited, Inc.

e. "Tcl / Tk as a Basis for Groupware" by Mark Roseman

This file (tcl93-proceedings2) contains the PostScript for the paper:

f. "A Table Manager for Tk", by G. A. Howlett <[email protected]>, ATT.

This file (tcl93-proceedings2) also contains the slides and "minutes" from John Ousterhout's four "Future Directions for Tcl and Tk" sessions at the workshop:

g. Future directions: goals for discussion and possible topics

h. Future directions issue #1: managing extensions

i. Future directions issue #2: evaluating untrusted scripts

j. Future directions issue #3: improving the Tk binding mechanism

7. The Tcl Compiler (TC) Frequently Asked Questions by Adam Sah <[email protected]> is a document describing TC, which is a work in progress. Contact Adam for details.

8. A compact yet detailed overview of Tcl, Tk and Xf is available thanks to the graciousness of [email protected] (Dietmar Theobald) at: (compressed format) and (gzip format)

It is called Tcl/Tk in a Nutshell, was last updated in July of 1993, and is part of the STONE structured open environment.

9. Softcopy of an article about PhoneStation, a tool using Tk and Tcl, was presented at the 1993 Winter USENIX Conference.

Uhler, Stephen A. (1993) ``PhoneStation, Moving the Telephone onto the Virtual Desktop'', in the Proceedings of the 1993 Winter USENIX Conference, pp ??-??

A softcopy of the paper is available as

10. VanAndel, J.H., 1993: ``Design of a New Radar Control and Data Acquisition System''. Preprints, 26th Conference on Radar Meteorology, Norman, Oklahoma

The paper is available in postscript form via the experimental web server: <a href=" "> Radar Control PS </a>

11. Mark A. Harrison <[email protected]> has written a Tk/Tcl information sheet, providing an introductory look at why one might want to use Tcl and Tk. Version 1.0 was posted to comp.lang.tcl as <[email protected]>. Contact him for a copy.

12. Writing a Tcl extension : the Toocl example, Cédric BEUST 1995

13. Douglas Pan and Mark Linton <[email protected]> have written the paper ``Dish: A Dynamic Invocation Shell for Fresco''. It is available at . The FAQ as well as some other papers are in . Fresco is an X Consortium project - non-members interested in contributing to the effort should contact Mark Linton.

14. Michael Jipping, Hope College , (1993) ``Using Tcl as a Tool Talk Encapsulation'', in the Sun User Group Eleventh Annual Conference and Exhibition PROCEEDINGS, pp 161-174. This details work done writing an abstract extension to Tcl which enables one to encapsulate tools to make them ToolTalk aware.

15. A WorldWideWeb (WWW) resource for Ada Tcl is available as:

16. A WWW resource for the MBV Lab's Tcl/Tk support is:

17. A WWW resource for the HTCLtoTCL program is available at:

18. A WWW resource for describing the set of extra ServiceMail Tcl scripts is available at:

19. A WWW resource describing the HTML to Tcl preprocessor is available at:

20. A WWW resource discussing Tk/Tcl style issues is available at:

21. A WWW resource discussing Visual Numerics PV-Wave with Tk/Tcl is available at:

22. A set of WWW resources discussing the Fermilab's use of Tcl within a massive data manipulation package can be found at:

as well as various pages underneath this set of homes.

23. A soft file containing notes on Tcl and quoting philosophy can be found at

24. There are references to Tcl and Tk (and perhaps other Tcl based interpreters) within the following WWW databases:

The Catalog of Free Compilers and Interpreters:

and The Language List:

25. The first Tcl 'home page' is now available via the WWW URL:

Thanks to Mike Hopkirk <[email protected]> for the time, energy and resources to make this available. Note that this page is also available for those behind a firewall as:

This WWW link is mirrored at the following locations. There is no guarantee that they will be as up to date.

26. The home page for Jungle - the Tcl-based WWW server - is available as:

27. The home page for Nautilus - the Tcl-based incr tcl browser - is available at:

28. The home page for Zircon - the Tcl-based Internet Relay Communication (IRC) browser - is available at:

and a user's page at

29. Documentation on the Tcl processing of WWW's server Common Gateway Interface (known as CGI) can be found at:

30. Mark Roseman <[email protected]> has prepared a brief comparison between Tcl/Tk and the Interviews C++ toolkit. It is available via email by contacting him.

31. Information about the SIMON Mosaic hotlist management tool can be found at .

32. Information about Fritz Heinrichmeyer's experimental Schematic SPICE interface is available from .

33. Information about ical is now accessible from .

34. Wade Holst <[email protected]> used to provide Hypertcl - a WWW page providing various views on info available to the Tcl community. It formerly could be found at the URL

Amoung the many services Wade provides are:

   1) hypertext descriptions of EVERY Tcl application archived at
   2) hypertext version of the Tcl FAQ
   3) different views of the Tcl applications:
       a) Sorted by name    - every Tcl application known to me.
       b) Sorted by subject - a list of Tcl applications falling under
            general subject headers, like "graphics packages", or 
            "unix utilities" 
       c) Descriptions of Non-archived Tcl applications.
       d) View by changes
       e) View Postscript documentation
       f) View interesting ftp sites
       g) View man pages and FAQs
   4) list of new archived applications as they appear.  For example,
       you can find out what new applications have been archived in
       the last 8 days (BLT-1.7, beth4.0, zircon-1.15p4, tkmkf-3.6, 
       sybtcl-2.11 and oratcl-2.11).

35. The URL for a page describing threaded tknews is showing what the next release should be like.

36. The URL for a Tk-based Karel the Robot project is

37. A Tk reference card can be found at: This TeX and Postscript version of a Tk 3.3 card was provided by Paul Raines <[email protected]>.

38. A good document on Xauth is available at: or

39. The documentation for the Xf command is available in European page format as: as well as United States page format as:

40. Vivek Khera <[email protected]> has written a primer on setting up your environment for xauth (by default a requirement under Tk 3.3) in the document:

41. A list of MPEG animations, done with Tcl scripts using TSIPP can be found at: .

42. Project DA-CLOD (Distributedly Administered Categorical List of Documents) allows the Web participants to set up organizational pages. So a Tcl page has been set up. Check out the URL: or go directly to Tcl by way of:

43. A home page for tkmail can be found at

44. A home page for a map marking program can be found at

45. A simple httpd written in Tk/Tcl can be found at

46. A demo of images generated using Tk based tools can be found at

47. Documentation for the DART project can be found at

48. Neosoft now has a home page - see for it's Tcl page.

49. tkWWW

50. An example of the output from TreeLink can be found at: TreeLink is a Tk/Tcl program which draws a hypergraph of links from an HTML document.

51. The documentation for the ILU software environment, which enables systems to be written which communicate between many different languages, including Tcl, can be found at:

52. Huayong YANG <[email protected]> in news:[email protected] wrote a review of Tcl and the Tk Toolkit.

53. A page to locate the various versions of Wafe can be found at

54. A draft paper titled "Kidnapping X Applications" is available as a part of the TkSteal tar file. It is authored by Sven Delmas <[email protected]> and discusses the use of the TkSteal package to integrate existing X applications into a Tcl/Tk based program without having to make changes to the X application.

55. A page dedicated to the new HTML editor tkHTML can be found at:

56. A WWW section for Hdrug , an environment to develop logic grammers for natural languages, is available at

It uses ProTcl and TkSteal.

57. The HTML slides and demo pictures for Patrick Duval's talk in New Orleans titled ``Tcl-Me, a Tcl Multimedia Extension'' can be viewed at: and are available as a tar file at

58. A set of HTML pages for the scotty and tkined applications have been created. They can be found at:

59. An archive for the distributed processing incr tcl discussion may be found at gopher://

60. A copy of the paper Kevin B. Kenny <[email protected]> presented at the Tcl 94 workshop is accessible on WWW as

61. Terry Evans <[email protected]> is coordinating work on a tcl/tk interface to gdb. Send him email if you would like to help out.

62. The HTML home page of Jonathan Kaye <[email protected]> contains a pointer to lisp2wish, a package that allows a Tcl/Tk process and LISP process to synchronously communicate.

63. The following are a series of references to papers relating to the Safe TCL package.

64. A review of Tcl and the Tk Toolkit appeared in misc.books.technical on May 2, 1994 as Message-ID: <[email protected]> by [email protected] (Huayong YANG) who recommended the book to X programmers.

65. A set of Postscript files collected for the Tcl 94 workshop proceedings is available as:

The file contains the following papers:

a. "An Introduction to the Rush Language", by Adam Sah, Jon Blow, and Brian Dennis, University of California, Berkeley.

Describes a new Tcl-derived compiled language designed to be optimizable.

b. "Tcl/Tk at the WellSite", by Dave St. Clair, Baker Hughes INTEQ.

Describes the use of Tcl and Tk to add custom reporting and experimental calculation features to a realtime wellsite information system, "DrillByte".

c. "Interactively Configuring Tk-based Applications", by David Richardson, University of Michigan.

Describes an experimental tool for interactively querying the widget structure of a Tk-based application and modifying the appearance and behavior of those widgets.

d. "Dish: A Dynamic Invocation Shell for Fresco", by Douglas Pan, Stanford University, and Mark Linton, Silicon Graphics.

Describes a wish-like program, dish, which implements a Tcl interface to the X Fresco toolkit. Unlike Tk, however, dish implements only a few new built-in commands, and it recognizes and dynamically invokes Fresco methods using their definitions in the CORBA Interface Definition Language.

e. "Tcl meets 3D -- Interpretative Access to Object-Oriented Graphics", by Ekkehard Beier, Technical University of Ilmenau.

Describes a Tcl/Tk interactive 3D graphics application.

f. "An Environment for the Development of Interactive Music and Audio Applications", by Eric M. Jordan, Massachusetts Institute of Technology.

Discusses plans for a Tcl-based platform for interactive music and audio, building on existing systems such as Ak. Part of the intent is to show that building such a platform on top of Tcl will benefit both the computer music and the general computer systems communities, by giving each community access to the others' advances and capabilities.

g. "Packages: Adding Namespaces to Tcl", by George Howlett, AT&T Bell Laboratories.

Examines the namespace pollution problem in Tcl, current workarounds and their failings, and a suggested solution in the form of namespaces similar to those in C++.

h. "Using Tcl/Tk from Erlang", by Ingemar Ahlberg, Ellemtel.

Describes the successful connection of Tcl/Tk to Erlang, a declarative language designed for "soft" realtime applications.

i. "Tcl Programming Techniques for Specifying Visual Interfaces.", by Jeffrey P. Lankford, Northrop Grumman Corporation.

Compares procedure-oriented, data-oriented, and object-oriented techniques for specifying visual interfaces in Tcl. The paper shows how to integrate an object-oriented visual specification language (OSF/Motif UIL) with Tcl.

j. "Tcl/C++ Binding Made Easy", by John Menges and Brian Ladd, University of North Carolina.

Describes a method of type-safe binding for invoking C++ methods from Tcl.

k. "Dynamic Loading for Tcl: (What became of it?)", by Kevin B. Kenny, GE Corporate R&D Center.

At the 1993 Tcl/Tk workshop, a dynamic loading scheme for Tcl was designed, with the intent of including in the Tcl core. This paper discusses the various difficulties which were encountered in trying to produce a portable, reliable implementation of that design, and steps which might be taken to finally achieve such an implementation.

l. "Nautilus -- 20,00 Leagues under the tCl", by Lindsay F. Marshall, University of Newcastle upon Tyne.

Describes Nautilus, a combined debugger and browser for tcl/tk and incr tcl, written completely in incr tcl.

m. "Jodler -- A Scripting Language for the Infobahn", by Maximillian Ott, C&C Research Laboratories, NEC USA.

Describes a new object-oriented interpreted language based on prototypes and delegation. Jodler is designed for implementing autonomous agents in a networked, nonhomogenous environment. It is currently being implemented as a Tcl extension.

n. "incr Tk: Building Extensible Widgets with incr Tcl", by Michael J. McLennan, AT&T Bell Laboratories.

Describes an incr Tcl framework for creating mega-widgets. New mega-widgets are created using object-oriented principles to specialize or extend existing mega-widget classes.

o. "The sensor shells: An automated weather observation system", by Mike Hoegeman, GTE Weather Systems Group.

Describes the use of Tcl to build a weather station monitoring server, which collects data from weather sensing devices and makes it available to clients. The paper also describes the use of Tcl and Tk to build client applications.

p. "Tcl-Me, a Tcl Multimedia Extension",

Tcl-Me is an environment for fast prototyping of multimedia applications. The extension gives Tcl fine control over the processing of audio, video, and media-synchronization.

q. "Vinny: A RISC System/6000 Hardware Database (a.k.a. 'A Tcl/Tk Testimonial')", by Richard Otto, IBM.

A case study of the use of Tcl and Tk to graft an easy-to-use graphical interface onto a preexisting command-based application.

r. "User Shell Design with Components for Tcl and Tk", by Ruediger Franke, Technical University of Ilmenau.

Describes a method for building and using composite Tk widgets by combining the primitive widgets, and a user interface builder, USE, which makes use of that method.

s. "Tcl and Concurrent Object-Oriented Flight Software: Tcl on Mars", by David E. Smyth, Mars Pathfinder Flight Software Team, Jet Propulsion Laboratory.

Describes the use of Tcl on the "Mars Pathfinder" project, in which Tcl (with several extensions) is used in several ways: as the language for inter-object messages within the object-oriented flight software; as the implementation language for the monitor and control environment; and as the initial implementation language for some of the flight software itself.

t. "Ariadne", by Thomas A. Phelps, University of California, Berkeley.

This paper provides a brief description of a core platform of services for the construction of interactive multimedia document manipulation tools (browsers, editors, and so forth).

u. "A 3D Viewer Widget for Tk", Wayne A. Christopher, ICEM CFD Engineering.

Describes a new Tk widget, similar to the canvas widget, that can be used to display and manipulate graphical objects in three dimensions.

v. "Combination of 'set' and 'trace' Commands Found Useful for Concurrent, Quick-and-Easy Development of Character-Based Applications and Their Graphical Frontends", by Yasuro Kawata, Kimiya Onogawa, Akifumi Yabu, Akira Kawasaki, Hisahiro Kobayashi, and Mamoru Maekawa, University of Electro-Communications, Tokyo.

Describes a method for implementing applications which must have both character-based and graphical interfaces. The character-based command is written to be standalone, and it communicates with the graphical front-end by setting variables, which are detected by the graphical front-end via 'trace' commands.

w. "Ideas for Intelligent User Interface Design", by James R. Slagle, Zbigniew Wieckowski, University of Minnesota.

Presents principles for the design of user interfaces, and discusses how those principles might apply to Tcl and Tk.

65. In addition to the workshop papers, the abovementioned file ( ) also contains the slides from some of the workshop proceedings:

a. "Status of Tk 4.0", by John K. Ousterhout, University of California, Berkeley.

An overview of the current status of the Tk 4.0 release, including a tentative release schedule, as of the time of the workshop.

b. "Scripts and Agents: The New Software High Ground", by John K. Ousterhout, University of California, Berkeley.

Describes the plans for Tcl and Tk development by Dr. Ousterhout's group at Sun Microsystems.

c. "'Tcl cures 98.3% of all known simulation configuration problems,' claims astonished researcher!", by Richard Golding, Carl Staelin, Tim Sullivan, and John Wilkes, Hewlett-Packard Laboratories.

Describes the use of Tcl as a configuration language for a general simulation facility in the Storage Systems project at HP.

d. "Ideas for Intelligent User Interface Design", by James R. Slagle, Zbigniew Wieckowski, University of Minnesota.

Slides to accompany the paper of the same name.

66. A few slide presentations and one paper from the 1994 Tcl workshop are not included in the file mentioned above, but are available separately:

a. "Nautilus -- 20,00 Leagues under the tCl", by Lindsay F. Marshall, University of Newcastle upon Tyne.

Slides to accompany the paper of the same name.

b. "Managing Electronic Documents with Ariadne", by Tom Phelps, University of California, Berkeley.

Slides to accompany the paper "Ariadne".

c. "Writing Tcl programs in the Medusa Applications Environment", by Frank Stajano, Olivetti Research.

Describes Medusa, a distributed multimedia applications and conferencing system. The core facilities of the system are written in C++, and the applications themselves are written in Tcl with Tk and Tcl-DP.

d. "Use of Tcl in the Medusa Multimedia Applications Environment", by Frank Stajano, Olivetti Research.

Slides to accompany the paper "Writing Tcl programs in the Medusa Applications Environment".

e. "Tcl-me, a Tcl Multimedia Extension", by Patrick Duval and Tie Liao, INRIA.

A slide presentation to accompany the paper of the same name, in HTML format. It can be viewed at:

67. The proceedings for the 1994 workshop are no longer available -- sorry GWL.

68. Glenn Huxtable has written a paper about "cpumon", his Tcl/Tk-based CPU performance monitor:

69. Adam Sah has made his Masters' thesis, describing a Tcl compiler, available for ftp: "TC: An Efficient Implementation of the Tcl Language".

70. Richard Stallman posted an article titled "Why you should not use Tcl" to comp.lang.tcl and several other newsgroups on September 23, 1994:

news:[email protected]

and another titled "GNU Extension Language Plans" on October 19, 1994, with somewhat less inflammatory content:

news:[email protected]

These article caused quite a lot of discussion, including both valid criticisms and defenses of Tcl. It seems fair to include references to both sides here, rather than just including RMS' articles with none of the responses, so archives of selected articles from both discussions are available at:

71. Dan Connolly <[email protected]> is writing a critique of core Tcl called "Why Tcl Doesn't Scale". The current version can be found at:

72. John Ousterhout has prepared a "Tcl/Tk Engineering Manual" describing the coding, documentation, and testing conventions he used when developing Tcl and Tk. His group at Sun will be using it, and in case any other Tcl/Tk developers are interested in using it as well, he has made it publicly available.

73. David Gerdes has a set of slides which can be used for an introductory Tcl and Tk course, with an emphasis on Tk. They can be found at

74. First Virtual Holdings, Incorporated has announced an information commerce mechanism for the Internet. User interface software is available, based on Safe-Tcl. An index to their technical information, including pointers to the software, can be found at

75. The Second World Wide Web Conference, held in Chicago October 17-20, 1994, included several papers on systems implemented using Tcl. The proceedings are online at

The following twelve entries refer to the individual papers relevant to Tcl.

76. "WebMap - A Graphical Hypertext Navigation Tool", by Peter Doemel, University of Frankfurt. Presented at the Second WWW Conference.

77. "Live Multimedia over HTTP", by Jonathan C. Soo, MIT Laboratory for Computer Science. Presented at the Second WWW Conference.

78. "WWWinda: An Orchestration Service for WWW Browsers and Accessories", by Yechezkal-Shimon Gutfreund, et. al., GTE Laboratories. Presented at the Second WWW Conference.

79. "The TkWWW Robot: Beyond Browsing", by Scott Spetka, SUNY Institute of Technology at Utica/Rome. Presented at the Second WWW Conference.

80. "An API To Mosaic", by Guy Singh and Roger Binns, IXI Ltd. Presented at the Second WWW Conference.

81. "AstroWeb Tools", by Robert E. Jackson, Computer Sciences Corporation. Presented at the Second WWW Conference.

82. "Dynamic Documents: Extensibility and Adaptability in the WWW", by M. Frans Kaashoek, et. al., MIT Laboratory for Computer Science. Presented at the Second WWW Conference.

83. "W3 Based Medical Information Systems vs Custom Client Server Applications", by K.E. Willard, et. al., University of Minnesota Hospital and Clinic. Presented at the Second WWW Conference.

84. "Developing In-house Applications for Northrop Grumman on the F/A-18 E/F Program Using Mosaic and HTTPD", by J.M. Ivler, EDS. Presented at the Second WWW Conference.

85. "An Architecture for Scholarly Publishing on the World Wide Web", by Stuart Weibel, et. al., OCLC. Presented at the Second WWW Conference.

86. "Integrating Complex Data Access Methods into the Mosaic/WWW Environment", by Bhavna Chhabra, et. al., University of Colorado. Presented at the Second WWW Conference.

87. "Auto-FAQ: an experiment in cyberspace leveraging", by Steven D. Whitehead, GTE Laboratories. Presented at the Second WWW Conference.

88. "A brief introduction to TCL/TK", by David Martland, can be found on the Web at

89. Wayne Christopher has collected a great many comparisons between Tcl and other similar systems (mostly from USENET articles). They are available at

90. Michael B. Johnson's PhD thesis, currently in progress, describes a modelling system written using Tcl under NeXTStep. It is called "WavesWorld: A Testbed for 3D Autonomous Animated Characters". Various information, including an early draft and releases of part of the software, are available from

91. "Extending Tcl for Dynamic Object-Oriented Programming", by D. Wetherall and C. J. Lindblad, MIT Laboratory for Computer Science. An unpublished working paper.

92. "The VuSystem: A Programming System for Visual Processing of Digital Video", by C. J. Lindblad, D. J. Wetherall, and D. L. Tennenhouse, MIT Laboratory for Computer Science. Published in _Proceedings of ACM Multimedia 94_, San Francisco, CA, October 1994.

93. "An Interactive Programming System for Media Computation", by D. Wetherall, MIT Laboratory for Computer Science Technical Report 640.

94. "A Software-Oriented Approach to the Design of Media Processing Environments", by D. L. Tennenhouse, et. al., MIT Laboratory for Computer Science. Published in _Proceedings of the International Conference on Multimedia Computing and Systems_, Boston, MA, May 1994.

95. "ViewStation Applications: Intelligent Video Processing Over A Broadband Local Area Network", by C. J. Lindblad, et. al., MIT Laboratory for Computer Science. Published in _Proceedings of the USENIX Symposium on High-Speed Networking_, Oakland, CA, August 1994.

96. Will Morse of BHP Petroleum has written a Tcl/Tk and Expect Tutorial, which he presented at the World Wide Technology Conference in Houston, Texas, December 1, 1994. It is available from the author:

mailto:[email protected]

97. The USENIX Very High Level Languages Symposium, held in Santa Fe, New Mexico October 26-28, included several papers on systems implemented using Tcl.

The following five entries refer to the individual papers relevant to Tcl.

98. "A New Architecture for the Implementation of Scripting Languages", by Adam Sah and John Blow, University of California, Berkeley. Presented at the USENIX Very High Level Languages Symposium.

This paper discusses the implementation of Rush, a new language derived from Tcl. The implementation uses Scheme as an intermediate language.

99. "Tcl/Tk for a Personal Digital Assistant", by Karin Petersen, Xerox PARC. Presented at the USENIX Very High Level Languages Symposium.

100. "Using Tcl to Control a Computer-Participative Multimedia Programming Environment", by Christopher J. Lindblad, MIT Laboratory for Computer Science. Presented at the USENIX Very High Level Languages Symposium.

101. "TkPerl --- A port of the Tk toolkit to Perl5", by Malcolm Beattie, Oxford University Computing Services. Presented at the USENIX Very High Level Languages Symposium.

102. "Tcl: A Universal Scripting Language", by John Ousterhout, Sun Microsystems Laboratories. Invited talk at the USENIX Very High Level Languages Symposium. Slides are available (the PostScript versions cause problems with many PostScript interpreters):

http://playground.Sun.COM/~ouster/ http://playground.Sun.COM/~ouster/ http://playground.Sun.COM/~ouster/vhll.ppt (PowerPoint source)

103. John Ousterhout has a page on the World Wide Web, which contains information on the current status of Tcl and Tk and future directions.


104. "Scripts and Agents: The New Software High Ground", by John Ousterhout, Sun Microsystems Laboratories. Invited talk at the 1995 Winter USENIX Conference, New Orleans, January 16-20 1995. Slides are available (the PostScript versions cause problems with many PostScript interpreters):

http://playground.Sun.COM/~ouster/ http://playground.Sun.COM/~ouster/ http://playground.Sun.COM/~ouster/agent.ppt (PowerPoint source)

105. Mark Roseman has written a nice overview of GroupKit for the Web: "GroupKit - A Groupware Toolkit".

106. Adam Sah has written a critique of Tcl, titled "Tcl considered harmful".

107. A summary of the Tcl and Tk BOF at the 1995 USENIX in New Orleans is available at:

108. The 1995 USENIX Tcl/Tk Workshop Proceedings are available online to members of the USENIX Association. (See entry D.38 below for information about ordering a bound copy if you are not a USENIX member, or if you just want one.)

The following papers are included:

a. "Tcl-DP Name Server", by Peter T. Liu, Brian Smith, and Lawrence Rowe, University of California, Berkeley

b. "Multiple Trace Composition and Its Uses", by Adam Sah, University of California, Berkeley

c. "TclProp: A Data-Propagation Formula Manager for Tcl and Tk", by Sunanda Iyengar and Joseph A. Konstan, University of Minnesota

d. "Advances in the Pad++ Zoomable Graphics Widget", by Benjamin B. Bederson and James D. Hollan, University of New Mexico

e. "A Table-based Layout Editor", by George G. Howlett

f. "Mega-widgets in Tcl/Tk: Evaluation and Analysis", by Shannon Jaeger, University of Calgary

g. "Designing Mega Widgets in the Tix Library", by Ioi K. Lam, University of Pennysylvania

h. "incr Widgets An Object-Oriented Mega-Widget Set", by Mark L. Ulferts, DSC Communications Corporation

i. "Cross Platform Support in Tk", by Ray Johnson and Scott Stanton, Sun Microsystems Laboratories

j. "Automatic Generation of Tcl Bindings for C and C++ Libraries", by Wolfgang Heidrich and William Slusallek, Computer Graphics Laboratory, University of Waterloo

k. "An Anatomy of Guile: The Interface to Tcl/Tk", by Thomas Lord, Cygnus Support

l. "A Tcl to C Compiler", by Forest R. Rouse and Wayne Christopher, ICEM CFD Engineering and the University of California at Davis

m. "Using Tcl/Tk to Program a Full Functional Geographic Information System", by George C. Moon, Alex Lee, Stephen Lindsey, Unisys, Inc.

n. "TkReplay: Record and Replay for Tk", by Charles Crowley, The University of New Mexico

o. "PLUG-IN: Using Tcl/Tk for Plan-Based User Guidance", by F. Lonczewski, Munich University of Technology

p. "A Graphical User Interface Builder for Tk", by Stephen Uhler, Sun Microsystems Laboratories

q. "The New incr Tcl: Objects, Mega-Widgets, Namespaces and More", by Michael J. McLennan, AT&T Bell Laboratories

r. "Objective-Tcl: An Object-Oriented Tcl Environment", by Pedja Bogdanovich, TipTop Software

s. "Extending Tcl for Dynamic Object-Oriented Programming", by David Wetherall, MIT Laboratory for Computer Science

t. "Interpreted C++, Object Oriented Tcl, What next?", by Dean Sheehan, IXI Limited

u. "When is an object not an object?", by Mark Roseman, University of Calgary

v. "Tcl Commands as Media in a Distributed Multimedia Toolkit", by Jonathan L. Herlocker and Joseph A. Konstan, University of Minnesota

w. "Taming the Complexity of Distributed Multimedia Applications", by Frank Stajano and Rob Walker, Olivetti Research Limited

x. "Plug-And-Play with Wires", by Maximilian and John Hearn Ott, NEC USA Inc.

y. "RIVL: A Resolution Independent Video Language", by Jonathan Swartz and Brian C. Smith, Cornell University

z. "Two Years with TkMan: Lessons and Innovations", by Thomas A. Phelps, University of California, Berkeley

aa. "Prototyping NBC's GEnesis Broadcast Automation System Using Tcl/Tk", by Brion D. Sarachan, Alexandra J. Schmidt, GE R&D Center; Steven A. Zahner, NBC

bb. "Customization and Flexibility in the exmh Mail User Interface", by Brent Welch, Xerox Parc

cc. "Experience with Tcl/Tk for Scientific and Engineering Visualization", by Brian W. Kernighan, AT&T Bell Laboratories

dd. "Tcl Extensions for Network Management Applications", by J. Shonwalder and H. Langendorfer, Technical Univiersity of Braunschweig

109. A summary of the Tcl and Tk BOF at the 1996 USENIX in San Diego is available at:

D. Published articles, books, and similarly available resources

1. Computer Shopper, V12 N12, page 862 had an article referencing Tickle, the shareware package under Macintosh System 7 which is based on Tcl.

2. MacWEEK, Sept 14, 1992, V6 N32, page 91(1), Enhancing text editors for Mac developers. This article is a product announcement for Alpha 5.0, the Macintosh editor which incorporates Tcl.

3. Computer Language, V9 N7, page 76 had an article referencing Tcl in a hardware/software testing package which talks to a remote machine via a proprietary interface card.

4. SunWorld, V5 N10, pages 95-96 had a article discussing Tcl, Tk and expect.

5. UNIX REVIEW, V11 N4, April 1993, pages 93-94, Tcl, Tk, and friends by Richard Morin. The article, a part of "The Internet Notebook", mentions a little about Tcl and Tk, where to find the sources, where to find the draft of the book, and where to find the contributed software.

6. SunExpert, V4 N3, pages 32-36, by Richard Morin. As part of Morin's I/Opener series of articles, this is just a brief overview of Tcl and Tk. It mentions some of the technical ideas behind Tcl and Tk, where to find the Tcl source and mentions that the draft of the book is available for ftp. A 'hello, world' 3 line wish script is really all that is shown.

7. Libes, Don, "Obfuscated C and Other Mysteries", Wiley & Sons, January 1993.

This book has a whole chapter on Tcl. Aimed at the C programmer, it describes how to effectively use Tcl from C applications. Another chapter is on Expect - a walk-through of some of the more interesting code in Expect. These chapters originally appeared as separate articles in The C Users Journal, Vol. 8, No. 7, July 1990, and Vol. 9, No. 1, 1991. (Incidentally, the reason the book has such a peculiar title is that it also contains explanations of the Obfuscated C Code Contest winners.)

8. IEEE Design & Test of Computers, June 1993, pages 46-54, "RISE++: A Symbolic Environment for Scan-Based Testing" by Steve Vinoski. An article describing a system called the Remote Interactive Scan Environment (RISE++) that marries Tcl with RPC for the purpose of testing remote computer systems.

9. The X Journal, March-April 1993, pages 74-81, "HYPERTOOLS A revolution in GUI applications" (listed in the TOC as "Hypertools: A GUI revolution") by John K. Ousterhout and Lawrence A. Rowe.

10. Proceedings 1993 Tcl/Tk Workshop, Berkeley, CA, June, 1993. See above for online version information concerning these proceedings.

11. iX (multiuser/multitasking magazine), September 1993, pages 76-84 and 182-185. Two articles written in the German language. These concern the design (interpreter and library) of Tcl/Tk and its connections with C++. The articles say where to find the packages and some associated tools (such as XF). There are short examples on how to write programs with Tcl/Tk (taken from the demo-directory of the package) and examples on using XF. Very informative.

12. Network Computing (CMP Publishing, Inc), November 15, 1993, pp. 99 "Very Rich E-Mail". References safe-tcl.

13. The Addison-Wesley Publishing Company's quarterly newsletter "Innovations" dated Winter 93/94 contains an interview with John K. Ousterhout on pp 2,9,10. It mentions the April 1994 release date, Dr. Ousterhout's background at UCB and involvement in Sprite. John gives a overview of what Tk and Tcl are, what companies are using Tcl, where Tcl/Tk fits in relationship to AWK, Perl, Motif, and X Windows (sic), mentions there are between 10,000 and 50,000 people developing applications in Tcl/Tk, discusses where in the classroom the textbook fits, and gives an overview of John's view of the future of Tcl/Tk.

Also on page 3 of the same newsletter is the overview of the book listing it as 512 pages and a list price of $36.75.

One can send email to [email protected] (Pradeepa Siva) to request a copy of the newsletter, or call him at Addison-Wesley Publishing Company 617/944-3700, ext 2940, or call Addison-Wesley directly to request it at 800/238-9682.

14. EXE, Nov. 1993, V8 N6, p84(4), Ticklish X windows. This is a tutorial as a part of a regular Unix column. It covers Tcl/Tk as a scripting language for writing small X-Windows applications.

15. UNIX Review, March 1994, V12 N3, p87-90. Tickled Pink, by Kevin Richard and Eric F. Johnson. This is part of the programming column "CROSS THOUGHTS".

The authors attempt to provide a very brief taste for Tcl/Tk and to convey the purposes for which they consider Tcl suited. They provide a standard example of "Hello, world" in Tcl, and also a version written in Motif/C.

There were quite a few surprisingly negative remarks in a column which tried to be positive about Tcl/Tk.

16. iX, January 1994, pp 148-152, another German article about the interpretative class system that is a part of the GOOD graphics system.

17. John Ousterhout has written the book _Tcl and the Tk Toolkit_. It is published by Addison Wesley.

The book covers Tcl 7.3 and Tk 3.6, and covers Tcl, Tk, and the C interfaces to both packages.

Publication Information:

 Author: John Ousterhout
 Title: Tcl and the Tk Toolkit
 Publisher: Addison Wesley
 ISBN: 0-201-63337-X

Further information can be found at:

18. Walnut Creek CDROM has published the Tcl/Tk CDROM. This is a snapshot of the and (formerly alcatel, formerly harbor) archives, as well as the archives for comp.lang.tcl newsgroup. The snapshot of the current CDROM is from early April, 1994. The price is $39.95, plus shipping and handling. Contact:

        Walnut Creek CDROM
        1547 Palos Verdes Mall, Suite 260
        Walnut Creek, CA  94596

        1 800 786-9907
        1 510 674-0783
        1 510 674-0821 FAX

        1 510 947-5996 is another number for them that we have heard.

        [email protected]

The disc is available for FREE to anyone that has contributed any of their own work to the Sprite or NeoSoft Tcl archives. Just email your name, address, and the name of the files(s) that you contributed. Overseas addresses are okay.

19. The X Resource: Issue 10, Edited by Adrian Nye, Spring 1994, pp 33-46, contains the article "The X User: TkMan: A Man Born Again" by Tom Phelps <[email protected]> .

20. Dr. Dobb's Journal, June, 1994, p 49, in a side bar titled "Fresco: The Next-Generation InterViews", by Mark Linton, discussions X11R6's Fresco interface. There is a mention of "Dish", an interpreter based on Tcl to provide an interface to Fresco and CORBA. The mention is only 2 sentences.

21. Unix Review, June 1994, Daemons & Dragons column, "Expect", by Dinah McNutt, pp 35-41. This article discusses Don Libes' expect program, with three trival examples of driving passwd, ftp, and fsck.

22. Comput. Applic. Biosci., "DCSE v2.54, an interactive tool for sequence alignment and secondary structure research.", Peter De Rijk and Rupert De Wachter. I don't know for certain if this article covers the Tk version of DCSE or not - the intro for DCSE reads as if it does.

23. Brent Welch has written the book _Practical Programming in TCL and TK_. It is published by Prentice Hall.

The book deals with an introduction to Tcl/Tk in an easy fashion, along with tips on development, and in the future, discussions of several of the extensions such as incr tcl , TclX, BLT, etc. The book covers Tcl 7.4 and Tk 4.0, and includes a chapter on porting applications from Tk 3.6 to Tk 4.0.

Publication Information:

 Author: Brent Welch
 Title: Practical Programming in Tcl and Tk
 Publisher: Prentice Hall
 ISBN: 0-13-182007-9
 Pages: 450

Further information can be found at:

24. A number of other folk have included Tcl/Tk/Expect/and sometimes other pieces onto their CD-ROMs. Unfortunately, most of them haven't contacted us with information concerning the prices, contact information, etc.

One group that has sent us info is LEMIS (Lehey Microcomputer Systems) in Germany, which offers a CD-ROM filled with software for Intel-based implementations of UNIX System V.4.2, for DM100 or US$60, including support.

        Lehey Microcomputer Systems
        Schellnhausen 2
        36325 Feldatal
        Phone: +49-6637-1488
        Fax: +49-6637-1489
        Mail: [email protected]
        (Please, no orders by email -- paper required)

In the U.S., LEMIS' CD is distributed by Walnut Creek (see above, D.18).

Another is ACC Bookstores, which offers a Perl and Tcl CD for US$35.00 which contains:

"Full tcl and tk packages for the easy development of powerful X based user interfaces. The source code is included for tcl and tk aimed at UNIX variants, DOS, NT, Mac, and MS-Windows. Contributed scripts, extensions, documentation and packages [are included]."

For info, call (800) 546-7274 in North America, or +1-203-454-5500 or send email to [email protected].

Other reported sightings of Tcl/Tk on CD-ROM:

  - Sun User Group CD-ROM
  - Rich Morin's Prime Time Freeware (PTF) Unix CD-ROMs (contact [email protected])

Many distributions of Linux contain Tcl and various extensions. For example, Slackware v2.0, contains Tcl, Tk, expect, TclX, and incr tcl.

25. The Addison-Wesley Publishing Company's quarterly newsletter "Innovations", Spring 1994, pp 3,6 contains an interview with Dr. Terry R. Coley, Parallelograms. He discusses the reason Tcl is such a good match for use in his company's products, how important Dr. Ousterhout's book is to the use of Tcl, and mentions that his company will be bundling the book with all of their products.

Also on page 5 of the same newsletter is the overview of the book listing it as 480 pages and a list price of $36.75.

One can send email to [email protected] (Pradeepa Siva) to more information on the article, or call him at Addison-Wesley Publishing Company 617/944-3700, ext 2940, or call Addison-Wesley directly to request it at 800/238-9682.

26. CACM, Vol 37, N 6, June 1994, "An Overview of Motorola's PowerPC Simulator Family", by William Anderson, pp 64-69.

This article discussions the Motorola PowerPC simulator applications which were developed to permit early development and testing of PowerPC-based software such as compilers. The simulators are Tcl applications and the article discusses several benefits of using Tcl as a command language. Anderson also mentions plans for the next generation of simulators to have user-extendable GUIs based on Tk.

27. Tcl 7.3 is a part of the X11 R6 contrib distribution. So it will probably appear in any publically distributable forum in which entire package appears. Tk 3.6 is not, from my understanding, a part of the contrib tapes, etc.

28. The X Journal, volume 3, issue 1 (September-October 1994), pages 74-83: "X for the new user", by Jerry Smith. Contains a brief mention of Tk as an alternate user interface technology, and a reference to the Hypertools article by Ousterhout and Rowe.

29. The X Resource, Issue 11 (July 1994), pp 59-89: "Interactive GUI Development Environments: A Comparison of Tcl/Tk, the Desktop Kornshell, and MetaCard", by Scott Raney.

This article contains a balanced review of these three systems, with the author's views of their strengths and weaknesses with respect to each other and to C-based toolkits. Performance benchmarks are included.

30. The X Resource, Issue 11 (July 1994), pp 205-248: "A Tutorial Introduction to Tcl and Tk", by Graham A. Mark. (Source code [L1 ])

An introduction to Tcl and Tk for people who are familiar with UNIX, C, and X. The article presents the development of two relatively simple but complete applications, one text-based, and one graphical.

31. Don Libes has written the book _Exploring Expect: A Tcl-Based Toolkit for Automating Interactive Applications_. It is published by O'Reilly and Associates.

From the announcement:

"For all of you who thought that the Expect man page was too long and too terse at the same time, this book provides relief. _Exploring Expect_ is an introduction and comprehensive tutorial to Expect. Numerous examples are provided and explained, demonstrating how to save you time and money. Example topics include how to write patterns, do signal handling, use Expect as a telnetable daemon, and use Expect with Tk and other Tcl extensions.

"The book also includes an innovative introduction to Tcl - if you've had trouble using Tcl before, all of a sudden, it will make a lot more sense. And while Exploring Expect concentrates primarily on using Expect with Tcl, programmers attempting to automate interactive programs using C, Perl, Python, or any other language will find this book helpful because many of the concepts underlying Expect-like programming are common to all languages."

Publication Information:

 Author: Don Libes
 Title: Exploring Expect
 Subtitle: A Tcl-Based Toolkit for Automating Interactive Applications
 Publisher: O'Reilly and Associates, Inc
 ISBN: 1-56592-090-2
 Pages: 575

Further information can be found at:

32. In the August, 94 issue of SunExpert, a column by Peter Collinson refers to newer versions of Telebit Netblazers with Tcl embedded.

33. Sys Admin, Vol 3 No 5 (September/October 1994), pp 109-110: "A User's Report", by Elizabeth Zinkann.

This column contains a review of _Tcl and the Tk Toolkit_. The author summarizes the book's highlights and recommends the book highly.

34. _The Linux Journal_, December 1994: "X Window System Programming with Tcl and Tk", by Matt Welsh.

35. Michael B. Johnson's MIT SMVS thesis describes a system built with Tcl. The title is "Build-a-Dude: Action Selection Networks for Computational Autonomous Agents".

36. _How to Manage Your Network Using SNMP: The Networking Management Practicum_, by Marshall T. Rose and Keith McCloghrie, Prentice Hall, 1995; ISBN 0-13-141517-4. Describes a Tcl-based SNMP API, and contains several example programs.

37. _interactions_, Vol 2 No 1 (January 1995), pp 54-67: "Access to Graphical Interfaces for Blind Users", by W. Keith Edwards, et. al. Describes a system, Mercator, for making graphical applications accessible to blind users. One component of the system, transformation rules language, is based on Tcl.

38. The Proceedings of the 1995 USENIX Tcl/Tk Workshop are available from the USENIX association for US$29 for members, US$34 for non-members. See entry C.108 above for information about the papers presented and online availability. Ordering information is available at:

39. Eric Johnson has written the book _Graphical Applications with Tcl and Tk_. It is published by M&T Books.

Publication Information:

 Author: Eric F. Johnson
 Title: Graphical Applications with Tcl and Tk
 Publisher: M&T Books
 ISBN: 1-55851-471-6

Further information can be found at:

40. Will Schroeder, Ken Martin, and Bill Lorensen have written the book _The Visualization Toolkit: An Object-Oriented Approach to 3-D Graphics_. It is published by Prentice Hall.

The book covers a visualization toolkit written in C++, with an interface to Tk.

Publication Information:

 Author: Will Schroeder, Ken Martin, Bill Lorensen
 Title: The Visualization Toolkit
 Subtitle: An Object-Oriented Approach to 3-D Graphics
 Publisher: Prentice Hall
 ISBN: 0-13-199837-4
 Pages: 816

Further information can be found at:

41. Donnie Barnes, Marc Ewing, and Erik Troan of Red Hat Software have edited the Tcl and Tk manual pages to produce a formatted, bound book, _The Tcl and Tk Reference Manual_. It has both traditional and permuted indexes.

Publication Information:

Editors: Donnie Barnes, Marc Ewing, Erik Troan Title: The Tcl and Tk Reference Manual Publisher: Red Hat Software ISBN: 1-885329-08-3

Further information can be found at:

42. Brent Welch wrote the article Growing a new interface: model technology and the grass roots movement to Tcl/Tk for Electronic Design magazine, v. 45 (Mar. 3 1997), p. 60+.

43. Ellis Booker wrote XML Fits Naturally with Scripting for InternetWeek, 06/07/99, Issue 768, p18, 2/5 page.

44. Perl-like scripting language gains standardized extensions. was written by Jeff Walsh for InfoWorld , 03/22/99, Vol. 21 Issue 12, p16, 1/4p .

45. The salacious truth of the scripting paradigm shift to Tcl/Tk and Python. By: Nicholas Petreley for InfoWorld , 09/28/98, Vol. 20 Issue 39, p114, 1/2p .

46. In May, 2004, editors reviewed DRLX by Devicelogics. DRLX is a DR-DOOS based Linux loader. It appears to make use of Expect.

47. New tool suite supports scripting language, written by Bernard Cole for Electronic Engineering Times; 10/12/98 Issue 1030, p79, 2p.

48. Web scripting gets some added punch written by Richard Karpinski for InternetWeek, 07/13/98 Issue 723, p16, 2/5p, 1 chart.

49. Tcl scripting gains ground written by Richard Goering. Electronic Engineering Times; 07/13/98 Issue 1016, p20, 1/2p, 1bw .

Additional bibliographic references are still being sought.

End of Tcl Bibliography

See Tcl Articles for brief references to more current Tcl appearances.