Writing Tcl-Based Applications in C

Writing Tcl-Based Applications In C, by John Ousterhout

APN Warning: Much of this material is outdated and deprecated as it precedes 8.0

Tcl/Tk Tutorial, Part IV

Outline

  • Philosophy: focus on primitives.
  • Basics: interpreters, executing scripts.
  • Implementing new commands.
  • Managing packages; dynamic loading.
  • Managing the result string.
  • Useful library procedures: parsing, variables, lists, hash tables.

Philosophy

Usually better to write Tcl scripts than C code:

  • Faster development (higher level, no compilation).
  • More flexible.

Why write C?

  • Need access to low-level facilities (sockets?).
  • Efficiency concerns (iterative calculations).
  • Need more structure (code is complex).

Implement new Tcl commands that provide a few simple orthogonal primitives:

  • Low-level to provide independent access to all key features.
  • High-level to hide unimportant details, allow efficient implementation.

AMG: We now have the [socket] command, so it's not necessary to write C code to access sockets. Perhaps if you want access to, say, the raw link-layer, you may need to dip into C, but then again, if you write a sufficiently-generic facility, publish it as a loadable package so that no one will have to reinvent your wheel.

Lars H, 10 June 2005: Structuring is probably not an advantage of C over Tcl anymore, either.


Example: Weather Reports

  • Goal: retrieve weather reports over network from servers.
  • Tcl command set #1:
      -  Retrieve report, format, print on standard output.
  • Tcl command set #2:
      -  Open socket to weather server.
      -  Select station.
      -  Retrieve first line of report....
  • Tcl command set #3:
      -  Return list of available stations.
      -  Given station name, retrieve report.

Designing New Commands

Choose textual names for objects

        .dlg.bottom.ok
        file3 or stdin
  • Use hash tables to map to C structures.

Object-oriented commands

        .dlg.bottom.ok configure -fg red
  • Good for small numbers of well-defined objects.
  • Doesn't pollute name space.
  • Allows similar commands for different objects.

Action-oriented commands

        string compare $x $y
  • Good if many objects or short-lived objects.

Formatting command results

  • Make them easy to parse with Tcl scripts:
 tmp 53 hi 68 lo 37 precip .02 sky part
  • Make them symbolic wherever possible, e.g. not 53 68 37 .02 7

Use package prefixes in command names and global variables

        wthr_stations
        wthr_report
        midi_play
      -  Allows packages to coexist without name clashes.

AMG: These days you're better off using namespaces than package-prefixed naming conventions.


Interpreters

Tcl_Interp structure encapsulates execution state:

  • Variables.
  • Commands implemented in C.
  • Tcl procedures.
  • Execution stack.

Can have many interpreters in a single application (but usually just one).

Creating and deleting interpreters:

 Tcl_Interp *interp;
 interp = Tcl_CreateInterp();
 Tcl_DeleteInterp(interp);

Executing Tcl Scripts

 int code;
 code = Tcl_Eval(interp, "set a 1");
 code = Tcl_EvalFile(interp, "init.tcl");
code
indicates success or failure:
      -  TCL_OK: normal completion.
      -  TCL_ERROR: error occurred.
interp->result
points to string: result or error message.
  • Application should display result or message for user.

Quote from Tcl 8.5 manual [1]: The direct use of interp->result is strongly deprecated (see Tcl_SetResult [2]).


Where Do Scripts Come From?

  • Read from standard input (see tclMain.c).
  • Read from script file (see tclMain.c).
  • Associate with X events, wait for events, invoke associated scripts (see tkMain.c).

Creating New Tcl Commands

  • Write command procedure in C:
 int EqCmd(ClientData clientData, Tcl_Interp
        *interp, int argc, char **argv) {
    if (argc != 3) {
        interp->result = "wrong # args";
        return TCL_ERROR;
    }
    if (strcmp(argv[1], argv[2]) == 0) {
        interp->result = "1";
    } else {
        interp->result = "0";
    }
    return TCL_OK;
 }

AMG: Since 8.0, Tcl has snazzy object-based commands wherein char **argv is replaced with Tcl_Obj *const objv[] for a terrific speed boost. Hot stuff. Check it out.


Creating New Tcl Commands, cont'd

  • Register with interpreter:
 Tcl_CreateCommand(interp, "eq", EqCmd,
        (ClientData) NULL, ...);
 Tcl_DeleteCommand(interp, "eq");
  • Once registered, EqCmd will be called whenever eq command is invoked in interp.
 ClientData
        Tcl_CreateCommand(interp, "eq", EqCmd,
        clientData, ...);
 int EqCmd(ClientData clientData, ...) {...}
  • Used to pass any one-word value to command procedures and other callbacks.
  • clientData is usually a pointer to data structure manipulated by procedure.
  • Cast pointers in and out of ClientData type:
      -  Tcl_CreateCommand(... (ClientData) gizmoPtr,
        ...);
      -  gizmoPtr = (Gizmo *) clientData;

Conventions For Packages

Goal: make it easy to develop and use Tcl extensions.

  1. Use package prefixes to prevent name conflicts:
      -  Pick short prefix for package, e.g. rdb.
      -  Use in all global names:
      -  C procedure: Rdb_Open
      -  C variable: rdb_NumRecords
      -  Tcl command: rdb_query
      -  See Tcl book and Tcl/Tk Engineering Manual for more details.

Packages, cont'd

  1. Create package initialization procedure:
      -  Named after package: Rdb_Init.
      -  Creates package's commands.
      -  Evaluates startup script, if any.
        int Rdb_Init(Tcl_Interp *interp) {
    Tcl_CreateCommand(...);
    Tcl_CreateCommand(...);
    ...
    return Tcl_EvalFile(interp,
            "/usr/local/lib/rdb/init.tcl");
        }

Packages, cont'd

  1. To use package:
      -  Compile as shared library, e.g. on Solaris:
 cc -K pic -c rdb.c
 ld -G -z text rdb.o -o rdb.so
      -  Dynamically load into tclsh or wish:
 load rdb.so Rdb
      -  Tcl will call Rdb_Init to initialize the package.

Managing The Result String

  • Need conventions for interp->result:
      -  Permit results of any length.
      -  Avoid malloc overheads if possible.
      -  Avoid storage reclamation problems.
      -  Keep as simple as possible.
  • Normal state of interpreter (e.g., whenever command procedure is invoked):
  • Default: command returns empty string.

Result String, cont'd

  • Option 1: (semi-) static result.
 interp->result = "0";
  • Option 2: use pre-allocated space in interp.
 sprintf(interp->result, "Value is %d", i);

Result String, cont'd

  • Option 3: allocate new space for result.
 interp->result = malloc(2000);

...

 interp->freeProc = free;
  • Tcl will call freeProc (if not NULL) to dispose of result.
  • Mechanism supports storage allocators other than malloc/free.

Procedures For Managing Result

  • Option 4: use library procedures.
 Tcl_SetResult(interp, string, ...);
 Tcl_AppendResult(interp, string,
    string, ... string, (char *) NULL);
 Tcl_AppendElement(interp, string);
 Tcl_ResetResult(interp);

Utility Procedures: Parsing

  • Used by command procedures to parse arguments:
 int value, code;
 code = Tcl_GetInt(interp, argv[1], &value);
  • Stores integer in value.
  • Returns TCL_OK or TCL_ERROR.
  • If parse error, returns TCL_ERROR and leaves message in interp->result.
  • Other procedures:
 Tcl_GetDouble  Tcl_ExprDouble
 Tcl_GetBoolean Tcl_ExprBoolean
 Tcl_ExprLong   Tcl_ExprString

Utility Procedures: Variables

  • Read, write, and unset:
        char *value;
 value = Tcl_GetVar(interp, "a", ...);
 Tcl_SetVar(interp, "a", "new", ...);
 Tcl_UnsetVar(interp, "a", ...);
  • Set traces:
        Tcl_TraceVar(interp, "a",
        TCL_TRACE_READS|TCL_TRACE_WRITES,
        traceProc, clientData);
  • traceProc will be called during each read or write of a:
      -  Can monitor accesses.
      -  Can override value read or written.

Other Utility Procedures

  • Parsing, assembling proper lists:
 Tcl_SplitList(...)
 Tcl_Merge(...)
  • Flexible hash tables:
 Tcl_InitHashTable(...)
 Tcl_CreateHashEntry(...)
 Tcl_FindHashEntry(...)
 Tcl_DeleteHashEntry(...)
 Tcl_DeleteHashTable(...)
  • Dynamic strings:
 Tcl_DStringInit(...)
 Tcl_DStringAppend(...)
 Tcl_DStringAppendElement(...)
 Tcl_DStringValue(...)
 Tcl_DStringFree(...)

Summary

  • Interfaces to C are simple: Tcl was designed to make this true.
  • Focus on primitives, use Tcl scripts to compose fancy features.